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The Council of Europe, the oldest European organisation, was founded in 1949 with the aim of unifying the continent as a whole. The decision to establish its headquarters in Strasbourg was, moreover, symbolic of the desire for reconciliation between peoples. From the outset the Council of Europe adopted an institutional structure comprising a committee of ministers and a parliamentary assembly - the first in Europe. This book retraces the history of the Organisation.
Consisting initially of Western European states, the Council of Europe was destined to embrace all the continent's countries, but the Cold War delayed its enlargement. It is only since 1989 that the Council of Europe has become a truly pan-European organisation, now comprising 47 member states.
Its mission is based on three major goals: protecting human rights, promoting democratic values and guaranteeing the rule of law. The Council of Europe is also very active in fostering co-operation in all areas of life: education, sport, culture, etc. Starting in 1959, the European Court of Human Rights grew to become the Organisation's flagship institution: its judgments are binding on the member states.
As an intergovernmental organisation, the Council of Europe has had to contend with the growth of the European Union and has sought constantly to redefine its role in international relations. In these early years of the 21st century, will it succeed in securing a key position in the European institutional architecture?
This is the third book in the Pestalozzi series. The first, Teacher education for change, dealt with the underlying philosophy of the Pestalozzi Programme and its approach to education in general and teacher education in particular. The second Intercultural competence for all, looked at the various implications of promoting the development of intercultural competence as a main concern of mainstream education.
This work takes a step further towards the full integration of intercultural competences as a key element within the education system. It aims at offering an educational rationale and conceptual framework for the development of intercultural competence, as well as a clear description of its constitutive elements to be developed in and through education.
The work of the Council of Europe for democracy is strongly based on education: education in schools, and education as a lifelong learning process of practising democracy, such as in non-formal learning activities. Human rights education and education for democratic citizenship form an integral part of what we have to secure to make democracy sustainable.
Hate speech is one of the most worrying forms of racism and discrimination prevailing across Europe and amplified by the Internet and social media. Hate speech online is the visible tip of the iceberg of intolerance and ethnocentrism. Young people are directly concerned as agents and victims of online abuse of human rights; Europe needs young people to care and look after human rights, the life insurance for democracy.
Bookmarks is published to support the No Hate Speech Movement youth campaign of the Council of Europe for human rights online. Bookmarks is useful for educators wanting to address hate speech online from a human rights perspective, both inside and outside the formal education system. The manual is designed for working with learners aged 13 to 18 but the activities can be adapted to other age ranges.
Europe has been going through its most serious crisis of values since the fall of communism. In public discourse, economic and social pressures have overshadowed the other dimensions of the crisis, including societal values. However, the crisis of values would appear to be more than simply an effect of the recession.
Europeans have lost trust in democratic institutions at all levels: European, national and local. Rising xenophobia and discrimination against minorities undermine the vitality of the European model of tolerance. Europe is plagued by endemic corruption which costs it more than EUR100 billion annually, triggering political instability.
Some believe that once Europe is back on the path of growth the crisis of values will disappear, and that there will be a resurgence of faith in European integration.
But in the long term, growth in Western societies may be impaired by serious "headwinds" resulting from demographic trends and rising inequalities, and Europe may become the first post-growth society. European societies are already changing their traditional characteristics as a result of exposure to the effects of two global mega-trends: the empowerment of the individual and cosmopolitisation.
Can the European project be of relevance when addressing these challenges? What role in this process can be played by the Council of Europe, which is the embodiment of the idea that Europe is big-ger than the European Union and the European agenda is richer than the economy and politics?
Créé en 1949, le Conseil de l'Europe, première organisation européenne, avait pour objectif l'unification du continent dans son entier. Le choix de Strasbourg pour y établir son siège symbolisait d'ailleurs la volonté de réconciliation entre les peuples. Le Conseil de l'Europe s'est doté dès le départ d'une structure institutionnelle comportant un Comité des ministres et une Assemblée parlementaire - la première en Europe. Cet ouvrage retrace l'histoire de cette organisation.
Constitué au départ par des Etats d'Europe occidentale, le Conseil de l'Europe avait vocation à intégrer tous les pays du continent, mais cet élargissement a été retardé par la guerre froide. Ce n'est qu'à partir de 1989 que le Conseil de l'Europe est devenu une véritable organisation paneuropéenne qui compte désormais 47 Etats membres.
Sa mission est centrée sur trois objectifs majeurs: protéger les droits de l'homme, promouvoir les valeurs démocratiques et garantir l'Etat de droit. Mais le Conseil de l'Europe développe également une activité intense pour favoriser la coopération dans tous les domaines de la vie sociale : éducation, sport, culture, etc. A partir de 1959, la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme devient l'institution phare du Conseil : ses arrêts s'imposent aux Etats membres.
Organisation intergouvernementale, le Conseil de l'Europe est confronté à l'évolution de l'Union européenne et cherche constamment à redéfinir sa place dans les relations internationales. A l'aube du XXIe siècle, parviendra-t-il à occuper une position clé dans l'architecture européenne ?
With the rise of the Internet, the opportunities to express oneself have grown exponentially, as have the challenges to freedom of expression. From the Arab Spring to the global Occupy movement, freedom of expression on the Internet has had a profound impact on the debates which shape our future. At the same time, an increasing number of states use the Internet to spy on journalists and citizens, to prosecute and jail bloggers, and to censor online information.This book sets out to answer essential questions regarding the extent and limits of freedom of expression online. It seeks to shed light on the often obscure landscape of what we are allowed to say online and how our ideas, and the process of imparting and receiving information, are protected.It shows the large ambit of rights protected by freedom of expression - including freedom of the media and the right to access information via the Internet. It also highlights the importance of the standard-setting, monitoring and promotion activities of international and non-governmental organisations, with a chapter on relevant national practices that illustrates how different states deal with the challenge that the Internet has brought to ensuring freedom of expression for all. As the importance of the Internet in our daily lives grows, readers will find this book to be a valuable resource for understanding the rights and obligations of each actor on the Internet, including states, Internet companies and civil society.
The Revised European Convention on the" Adoption of Children (RECAC) was introduced by the Council of Europe in 2008, in an effort to provide a modern framework for the adoption of children. It represents an international consensus on acceptable child adoption, reflecting the different views, legal diversity and common heritage of member states.This book provides an in-depth analysis and commentary on each of the 30 articles of the revised convention. It is a comprehensive work which explores the changes and developments that have taken place since the 1967 Convention on the Adoption of Children first emerged. It is a detailed, one-stop source for judges, social workers, legislatures and adoption practitioners on all aspects of the RECAC. This clear and incisive text is divided into three parts, commencing with an overview of the convention, followed by an examination of the general principles and concluding with the final clauses.
La Convention européenne en matière d'adoption des enfants (révisée) (CEAER) a été introduite par le Conseil de l'Europe en 2008 afin d'instituer un cadre moderne dans ce domaine. Elle représente un consensus international sur ce qui constitue une procédure acceptable d'adoption des enfants, en tenant compte des différents points de vue, de la diversité juridique et du patrimoine commun des Etats membres.Cet ouvrage offre une analyse et un commentaire approfondis de chacun des 30 articles de la convention révisée. Cette étude exhaustive révèle les changements et évolutions intervenus depuis l'élaboration de la Convention de 1967 en matière d'adoption des enfants. C'est une source unique et détaillée d'informations pour les juges, les travailleurs sociaux, les parlementaires et les praticiens de l'adoption sur tous les aspects de la CEAER. Ce texte clair et incisif est divisé en trois parties, débutant par une vue d'ensemble de la convention, suivie d'un examen des principes généraux et s'achevant par les clauses finales.
Right to Remember is a self-contained educational resource for all those wishing to promote a deeper awareness of the Roma Genocide and combat discrimination. The handbook is based on the principles of human rights education, and places remembrance as an aspect of learning about, through and for human rights.Strengthening the identity of Roma young people is a priority for the Roma Youth Action Plan of the Council of Europe. This implies the creation of an environment where they can grow up free from discrimination and confident about their identity and future perspectives, while appreciating their history and their plural cultural backgrounds and affiliations.The Roma Genocide carried out before and during the Second World War has deeply impacted on Roma communities across Europe and plays a central role in understanding the prevailing antigypsyim and discrimination against Roma. Learning about the Genocide is very important for all young people. For Roma young people it is also a way to understand what was perpetrated against their communities, and to help them to com to terms with their identity and situation today.Involving young people, including Roma youth, in researching, discussing and discovering the meanings of the Roma Genocide is a way to involve them as agents and actors in their own understanding of human rights and of history.Right to Remember includes educational activities, as well as ideas for commemoration events, and information about the Genocide and its relevance to the situation of the Roma people today. It has been designed primarily for youth workers in non-formal settings, but it will be useful for anyone working in education, including in schools.
A variety of mechanisms has been established in the Council of Europe to monitor compliance with human rights standards.This publication discusses four specific monitoring bodies, namely the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, and the European Committee of Social Rights. By assessing and comparing the monitoring procedures and standard-setting activities of these expert bodies, the authors make an essential contribution to the discourse on the Council of Europe's role - both current and future - with regard to human rights.This book constitutes a rich source of information on the dialogue between the four committees and European states. It is addressed to practitioners, diplomats and decision makers at national level to deepen their understanding of the aims and functioning of Council of Europe monitoring mechanisms. Students and academics will gain a comprehensive insight into the legal bases, mandates and procedures of such mechanisms. Finally, it is hoped that the expert bodies themselves will gain much from the authors' analysis of present-day challenges for monitoring and the impact their implementation standards may have on the development of the European human rights order.
This book examines the relationship between two policy approaches for managing the cultural diversity of contemporary societies: interculturalism and multiculturalism.
The relationship between these two approaches has been a matter of intense debate in recent years. Some commentators argue that they represent two very different approaches, while others argue that interculturalism merely re-emphasises some of the core elements of present day multiculturalism. The debate arises, in part, because multiculturalism can take a variety of different forms, which makes it difficult to identify its key features in order to compare it with interculturalism. The debate has gained added momentum from the backlash against multiculturalism in recent years, and from the Council of Europe's prominent championing of interculturalism as an alternative approach.
This book aims to clarify the concepts of interculturalism and multiculturalism, and to bring the various arguments together in a way that will assist politicians, policy makers, practitioners and interested lay people to understand the concerns that are driving the different orientations. The book is also intended to facilitate a comparison of the policy implications of interculturalism and multiculturalism. To this end, each chapter concludes with a concise statement of the implications for policy that follow from the viewpoint that has been expressed.
Recommendation CM/Rec(2012)11 on the role of public prosecutors outside the criminal justice system complements Recommendation Rec(2000)19 on the role of public prosecution in the criminal justice system which was adopted in autumn 2000. Together these two recommendations set European standards for prosecutorial activities with a comprehensive set of principles defining the status, powers and practice of the public prosecution service for all areas of law in a modern democratic State. Whatever the nature of their responsibilities, whether they be criminal, civil, administrative law or other, it behooves public prosecutors to carry them out in full accordance with the rule of law, human rights and other principles which are fundamental to all democratic societies.This recommendation draws upon a number of sources as well as on the practice of the prosecution services of many Council of Europe member States that enjoy extensive powers outside the criminal justice system. A report, prepared in 2008 at the request of the Consultative Council of European Prosecutors (CCPE) of the Council of Europe, not only illustrated the diversity among legal systems but also showed that public prosecutors in most of the Council of Europe's 47 member States are vested with duties that extend beyond the criminal justice system of their countries. Such powers are based on the various branches of law, with the aim of protecting the public interest as well as the rights and legitimate interests of individuals, especially members of socially vulnerable population groups.Overall, the recommendation represents a step forward in strengthening the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms, as the manner in which public prosecutors exercise their role, inside and outside the criminal justice system, is crucial to the protection of these rights and freedoms.
The right to freedom of expression entails duties and responsibilities and is subject to certain limits, provided for in Article 10.2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which are concerned, among other things, with protecting the rights of others. Identifying what constitutes "hate speech" is especially difficult because this type of speech does not necessarily involve the expression of hatred or feelings.On the basis of all the applicable texts on freedom of expression and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights and other bodies, the author identifies certain parameters that make it possible to distinguish expressions which, although sometimes insulting, are fully protected by the right to freedom of expression from those which do not enjoy that protection.
The essays in this book present, for the first time in published form, a systematic comparative overview of cultural heritage policy and its impact - specifically in the field of immovable heritage such as archaeological and historic sites - in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", Montenegro, Romania and Serbia.The studies focus on the decade from 2003 to 2013 that followed the traumatic and often violent upheavals associated with the breakdown of communism. That same period also saw a shift in the policy of the European Union and the Council of Europe in support of cultural heritage policies in the region, which led to the launching of the "Ljubljana Process: rehabilitating our common heritage". The challenges gradually moved from encouraging professionals to adopt European standards and realising the potential of heritage to build bridges between peoples and to foster reconciliation, towards highlighting its wider benefits as a catalyst of economic development for the local economy and the quality of life of citizens.Theorists and practitioners will gain a better insight into the value of cultural heritage and the specificity of cultural heritage policies in South-East Europe, as well as the underlying facts, vision, context and impact of the Ljubljana Process. This will encourage questioning of existing public policies, as well as the promotion and affirmation of cultural heritage within a new "culture of development".
In many European countries, the Roma and Traveller populations are still denied basic human rights and suffer blatant racism. They remain far behind others in terms of educational achievement, employment, housing and health standards, and they have virtually no political representation.Anti-Gypsyism continues to be widespread and is compounded by a striking lack of knowledge among the general population about the history of repression of Roma in Europe. In times of economic crisis, the tendency to direct frustration against scapegoats increases - and Roma and Travellers appear to be easy targets.This report presents the first overview of the human rights situation of Roma and Travellers, covering all 47 member states of the Council of Europe. Its purpose is to encourage a constructive discussion about policies towards Roma and Travellers in Europe today, focusing on what must be done in order to put an end to the discrimination and marginalisation they suffer.
Prévue par le Traité de Lisbonne, l'adhésion de l'Union européenne à la Convention européenne des droits de l'homme est appelée à devenir un événement majeur dans l'histoire juridique européenne, car elle permettra enfin aux particuliers et aux entreprises de soumettre au contrôle de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme les actes des institutions de l'Union européenne, dont l'importance croissante dans la vie de tous les jours n'est plus à démontrer.Au terme de presque trois années de négociations, un projet de traité permettant cette adhésion a été adopté le 5 avril 2013. A la lumière de ce projet, l'ouvrage analyse de façon synthétique, dans un langage simple mais rigoureux, les raisons, les moyens et les effets de l'adhésion de l'Union européenne à la Convention.
Le droit à des élections libres figure parmi les droits les plus difficiles à appréhender : principe objectif et indispensable de toute société démocratique, il est aussi un droit subjectif et fondamental invocable par tout citoyen. Droit individuel d'une part, il n'a de sens que dans le cadre d'un exercice collectif. D'autre part, ce même droit, associé au droit de vote et au droit d'éligibilité, requiert une mise en oeuvre démocratique qui mobilise en réalité beaucoup d'autres droits et libertés, que ce soit avant, pendant et après l'élection proprement dite. C'est aussi un des droits les plus valorisé au Conseil de l'Europe en ce qu'il participe à la promotion de la « démocratie véritable » qui sert de pilier à l'Organisation aux côtés de la prééminence du droit et du respect des libertés fondamentales.L'ouvrage passe au crible les principaux textes et sources du droit du Conseil de l'Europe en la matière : conventions, résolutions, recommandations, lignes directrices sans compter l'abondante jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme.Cet ouvrage s'adresse aux praticiens du droit, aux étudiants, mais, plus largement, à tous ceux qui s'intéressent au couple Europe et démocratie.
The Council of Europe is the oldest of European institutions. Under the banner of human rights and democracy, it brings together 47 member states, ranging from Finland to Turkey and from Switzerland to Russia. Its Parliamentary Assembly represents over 800 million Europeans and its conventions for the protection of social and fundamental rights are among the most successful in the world. However, this organisation receives little recognition and is still frequently confused with the European Union. Building upon the momentum created during the celebrations of the Council of Europe's 60th anniversary, this publication offers an opportunity to rediscover its history, activities and achievements.
The Council of Europe, after 40 years of activities with Roma, is intensifying its commitment to monitoring and improving their situation and to involving their representatives in the creation of the policies which concern them.This publication, a reference work and an analysis intended to further knowledge and inspire reflection on the issues, presents a summary of the relevant adopted texts and activities by placing them in a historical perspective. The facts, all too often isolated, must be given greater visibility to increase their legibility - beyond a simple summary - and foster a long-term vision.Devised to be useful to both political decision makers and to administrative representatives - at European, national and local levels - and to activists in non-governmental organisations, this work will interest everyone concerned by the situation of Roma in Europe.
This publication is the result of the Edgeryders project, an online dialogue platform run by the Council of Europe with a view to promoting discussion with young people on the challenges of their transition to working life.
Given that the imagination and the experiences of young citizens can only be understood in the context of horizontal relations (learning though sharing and joint management) in line with the networking approach, which restores the significance of individual effort and provides innovative solutions, a programme such as Edgeryders can provide a future-oriented alternative.
In turn, institutions must show creativity. It is no longer a case of managing inertia, but above all of creating a balance between what the public authorities can do and what they can facilitate. By adopting a spirit of co-operation, the authorities can encourage the sharing of responsibilities, ideas, goods and values, while opening up to mutual learning.
Nevertheless, this type of interaction is only possible if two conditions are met. Firstly, institutions must show a clear desire to ensure unprecedented scope for dialogue with young people by ascribing a high value to the proposals that emerge from the contacts among and with young citizens. Secondly, young people's interest in public affairs must be maintained in the long term by shoring up the online exchange with concrete evidence of legitimacy. This publication is intended to help meet these two conditions.
Peaceful, prosperous, democratic and respectful of people's rights, building Europe is an ongoing challenge. For many years it seemed that Europeans lived on a continent of shared values and a common destiny. No one paid attention to the alarm bells warning of growing divisions across the continent, which have become more insistent since the economic and social crisis. Europe and its values, previously taken for granted, are now being contested. These clouds are casting a shadow across Europe's future, and old demons, long dormant, have started to raise their voices again.With a deepening values divide there is an urgent need for public debate and a reconsideration of how Europeans can strengthen the European project. Is a "Europe united in diversity" still feasible? Can a consensus be forged on a set of values pertaining to a common European identity? What should be done to preserve European unity?The Council of Europe, with its membership covering Europe from Vladivostok to Lisbon and from Reykjavik to Ankara, and its mission to promote democracy, human rights and the rule of law, provides an excellent framework for discussing the current state of thinking and dynamics behind the concept of European identity.For these reasons, the Council of Europe, together with the École nationale d'administration in Strasbourg, held a series of European Identity Debates featuring eminent personalities from a variety of backgrounds including politics, civil society, academia and the humanities.This publication presents the 10 European Identity Debates lectures. The authors identify major issues and challenges and provide an original analysis of different aspects of European identity within their fields of expertise. The authors formulate proposals on how to better understand the multifaceted nature of Europe, what it means today to be European, and what should be done in terms of ideas and strategies to keep Europe dynamic and to build a sustainable future.
In the early 21st century, poverty, impoverishment and inequalities are increasing across the European continent. These phenomena not only weaken the social cohesion of European societies, they also violate human rights, including social and civil and political rights, and question the functioning of democracy. How can people living in poverty make their voices heard in polarised societies, where more than 40% of assets and 25% of revenues are held by 10% of the population?This guide is the result of two years of collective discussion held within the framework of the project "The human rights of people experiencing poverty". It was prepared with the assistance of many individuals and organisations, including people living in poverty, researchers, associations and representatives of public authorities. As well as offering a critique of the current situation, analysing inequality and poverty through the prism of human rights, democracy and redistributive policies, the guide also invites the reader to explore the possibilities of a renewed strategy to fight poverty in order to restore a sense of social justice. It makes proposals that aim to overcome the stigmatisation and categorisation of people, opening pathways of learning to build well-being through sharing, avoiding waste and by enhancing public awareness around the principle of human dignity as a human right for all.
Just what are your human rights, and how does the Council of Europe protect them? This small book tells the story simply and clearly, making a complicated issue straightforward. It offers examples illustrating each right in the European Convention on Human Rights, and short explanations placing the European Court of Human Rights in the wider context of other Council of Europe activities that also promote the same ideals. As informed citizens of Europe, we all need to be aware of human rights and of the importance of maintaining and promoting them. Europe has a good story to tell about human rights and this book tells it.