OECD

  • Combler l´écart pour les élèves immigrés

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 30 Août 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    L'OCDE a procédé à des examens de la politique de formation des migrants en Autriche, au Danemark, en Irlande, en Norvège, aux Pays-Bas et en Suède, et s'est penchée sur l'expérience de nombreux pays en matière de formation de cette population. Cette publication offre des données comparatives sur l'accès, la participation, et les résultats scolaires des élèves issus de l'immigration par rapport aux autres élèves, et recense une série d'options pour l'action publique, à la lumière d'expériences réussies.

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  • Anglais OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2009

    Collective

    • Oecd
    Parution : 28 Juillet 2009 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    This 15th edition of the Agricultural Outlook edition presents the outlook for commodity markets during the 2009 to 2018 period, and analyses world market trends for the main agricultural products, as well as biofuels. It provides an assessment of agricultural market prospects for production, consumption, trade, stocks and prices of the included commodities.

    This edition of the Outlook was prepared in a period of unprecedented financial market turmoil and rapidly deteriorating global economic prospects. Because macroeconomic conditions are changing so quickly, this report complements the standard baseline projections with an analysis of revised short-term GDP prospects and alternative GDP recovery paths. Lower GDP scenarios result in lower commodity prices, with reductions in crop and biofuel prices about one-half those for livestock products. A sensitivity analysis to highly uncertain crude oil prices shows the important links between energy and agricultural prices. The Outlook also reports on a survey of various actors in the agri-food chain in terms of the current impacts of the global economic crisis and credit market constraints.
    The issue of food security and the capacity of the agricultural sector to meet the rising demand for food remains very high on the international political agenda. This report provides a brief overview of critical factors such as land availability, productivity gains, water usage and climate change, and suggests that agricultural production could be significantly increased, provided there is sufficient investment in research, infrastructure and technological change, particularly in developing countries.

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  • Anglais Itf roundtable report 149 improving the practice of transport project appraisal

    Ocde

    • Oecd
    Parution : 19 Avril 2011 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is indispensable for making good decisions on what transport projects to fund. It essentially aims to figure out which projects offer the best value for money. However, the practical relevance of CBA does not always live up to its appeal in principle. One problem is that there is sometimes disagreement over what to include in CBA, both on the cost side and the benefits side of the analysis. As a result, value for money is not always fully transparent. More politically, value for money is only a partial criterion for decision-making, leading to disagreement about the relative importance of the results from CBA compared to other inputs to the decision-making process.
    This report examines the extent to which these shortcomings can be addressed. In terms of what to include in CBA, discussion focuses on equity and distributional impacts, productivity effects, agglomeration benefits and external costs. The focus then turns to how best to present guidance on project selection to decision makers. The report includes papers on the way CBA is used in three countries - France, Mexico and the United Kingdom - and how it is evolving in response to changing policy priorities.

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  • The Western Balkan region benefits from a cost-competitive labour force and geographic and cultural proximity to EU markets. However, cost competitiveness as a source of differentiation is not sustainable. Cost levels are increasing gradually in some sectors, reducing firms' profitability. In order to sustain competitiveness, the Western Balkans needs to move up the value chain, from investing in automated technology to producing higher-quality goods and enhancing its human capital. This report examines the apparel manufacturing, automotive components and business process and technology outsourcing sectors, focusing on market competitiveness factors, industry key success factors and policy recommendations.

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  • Anglais Public administration after new public management

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 7 Juin 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Public administration has entered a new age. In the 1980s, "less" government was the prevailing idea; in the 1990s and early 21st century, "New Public Management" was the dominant theme. Today, public administration is moving in new directions. Reforms are focusing on the quality of services for citizens and businesses and on the efficiency of administration (the "back office" of government). The OECD is studying these new trends in a multi-annual, cross-country project called "Value for Money in Government".
    This is the first report in a new OECD series on the topic. The book examines four themes in nine OECD countries: the development of shared service centres, the steering and control of agencies, automatic productivity cuts, and spending review procedures. In addition, it contains a quantitative analysis of the size of employment in central government. The countries studied are Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The book pays particular attention to the case of the Netherlands, the country that first proposed an OECD study on value for money in government.

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  • Anglais Improving Schools

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 30 Septembre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    This report develops comparative knowledge for reforms in teacher and school management policies in the context of an OECD member country: Mexico. Mexico's education outcomes can be improved by enhancing the effectiveness of its schools. The standards gap between the performance of students in Mexico and other OECD countries can only be reduced if schools become good at what they do. This report looks at key issues and challenges faced by the Mexican education system and provides policy recommendations on school management, leadership and teacher policies. These recommendations have been developed by considering the outcomes, quality and standards of education and schools in Mexico in terms of what is known internationally about effective schools, and by adapting this knowledge to the Mexican context.
    The report has two audiences: It aims to support the Mexican government and key actors in the education system to develop long-term vision and policy in the areas of school management, school leadership, social participation, selection and recruitment of teachers, teacher education, professional development, and evaluation policies in Mexico. At the same time, it provides valuable knowledge in education policy development and implementation useful for other OECD member and partner countries that are in the process of reforming their education systems.

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  • Anglais Doing better for children (anglais)

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 1 Septembre 2009 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Table of contents
    Foreword
    Chapter 1. Summary of Key Findings
    Chapter 2. Comparative Child Well-being across the OECD
    Chapter 3. Social Spending across the Child's Life Cycle
    Chapter 4. From Conception to Kindergarten
    Chapter 5. Child Well-being and Single Parenthood
    Chapter 6. Childhood and Inter-generational Mobility
    Chapter 7. Doing Better for Children: The Way Forward

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  • Anglais Oecd territorial reviews : nora region 2011 ; the Faroe islands, Greenland, Iceland and Coastal Norway

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 30 Mars 2011 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    The North Atlantic (NORA) region is a transnational area comprising the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, and the coastal counties of Norway. These territories are linked by shared characteristics and challenges, as well as by historical, institutional and cultural links. Improving accessibility to the region, ensuring sustainable development of its fisheries, enlarging and diversifying its economic base, and meeting the challenges of climate change are key issues. Strengthened regional co-operation can help these territories address them by exchanging know-how and best practices, pooling resources and reaching economies of scale, improving the efficiency of public sector provision, and increasing the "voice" of the region.
    However, transnational co-operation in the NORA region faces some barriers, as it involves territories that compete in their main economic activities, are separated by large distances, and have strong institutional and economic links with other countries and regions. In order to get the most from transnational co-operation, this report recommends that the NORA territories: focus co-operation efforts on targeted themes and issues; draw up a regional development strategy; promote greater awareness of the benefits of co-operation; develop a "variable geometry" approach to regional co-operation; and enlarge and refine the role of the NORA institution as a facilitator of co-operation.

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  • Anglais Corporate governance in Slovenia 2011

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 10 Mars 2011 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    This Review of Corporate Governance in Slovenia describes the corporate governance setting including the structure and ownership concentration of listed companies and the structure and operation of the state-owned sector. The Review then examines the legal and regulatory framework and company practices to assess the degree to which the recommendations of the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance and the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises have been implemented.

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  • Anglais Chile's international scholarship programme

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 2 Septembre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Chile has long considered education as a central priority and as key for its economic development. Over the past two decades the country has made great strides to increase the numbers of young people entering tertiary education. In 2008 Chile embarked on a bold initiative to develop its human capital with a scholarship abroad scheme - the Becas Chile Programme - which aims to train 30 000 outstanding students including teachers and technicians in institutions of their choice around the world.
    This joint OECD and World Bank report gives an overview of human capital development in Chile; describes features of the Becas Chile Programme; analyses the strategic and operational issues; and recommends ways to maintain and fine-tune the scholarship abroad scheme. This report will be useful for both Chilean education professionals and their international counterparts.

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  • Anglais The call for innovative and open governement

    Ocde

    • Oecd
    Parution : 10 Avril 2011 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    This report presents an overview of country initiatives concerning efficient, effective public services and open and innovative government. It focuses on four core issues: delivery of public services in times of fiscal consolidation; a more effective and performance-oriented public service; promotion of open and transparent government; and strategies for implementation of a reform agenda. These issues were discussed at the OECD Public Governance Ministerial Meeting held in Venice, Italy, in November 2010, hosted by the Italian Ministry for Public Administration and Innovation.

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  • Optimiser les depenses de sante

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 7 Octobre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Les dépenses de santé continuent d'augmenter inexorablement, et ce à un rythme plus rapide que celui de l'économie dans la plupart des pays de l'OCDE. L'essentiel de ces dépenses est financé publiquement. Face au récent ralentissement économique, les pays cherchent les moyens d'améliorer l'efficience des dépenses de santé. La présente publication examine les efforts actuellement déployés pour améliorer l'efficience des soins et passe en revue un certains nombres d' outils de nature à permettre aux systèmes de santé d'optimiser l'utilisation des ressources en offrant des soins de qualité : rémunération selon la performance, coordination des soins, évaluation des technologies de santé, politiques de prix et de remboursement des médicaments, et technologies de l'information et de la communication.


    www.oecd.org/sante


    À lire dans cette série :

    L'obésité et l'économie de la prévention : Objectif santé (2010)
    S'assurer de la qualité des soins de santé (2010)
    Obtenir un meilleur rapport qualité-prix dans les soins de santé (2009)
    Les prix des médicaments sur un marché global : Politiques et enjeux (2008)
    Les personnels de santé dans les pays de l'OCDE : Comment répondre à la crise imminente ? (2008)


    À consulter également :

    Panorama de la santé - Les indicateurs de l'OCDE (2009)

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  • Anglais Global forum on transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes peer reviews : Canada 2011

    Ocde

    • Oecd
    Parution : 27 Avril 2011 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 90 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. "Fishing expeditions" are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 plus Phase 2 - reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.
    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please visit www.oecd.org/tax/transparency

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  • Anglais Inspired by technology, driven by pedagogy - a systemic approach to technology-based school innovati

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 4 Octobre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    This report highlights key issues to facilitate understanding of how a systemic approach to technology-based school innovations can contribute to quality education for all while promoting a more equal and effective education system. It focuses on the novel concept of systemic innovation, as well as presenting the emerging opportunities to generate innovations that stem from Web 2.0 and the important investments and efforts that have gone into the development and promotion of digital resources. It also shows alternative ways to monitor, assess and scale up technology-based innovations. Some country cases, as well as fresh and alternative research frameworks, are presented.
    Today, sufficient return on public investments in education and the ability to innovate are more important than ever. This was the conclusion of the international conference on "The School of Tomorrow, Today" organised by the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation with the support of the Secretariat of Education of the State Santa Catarina (Brazil), in November 2009. The conference and this resulting report share the overall goal of addressing the issue of how education systems achieve technology-based innovations.

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  • L'éducation, un levier pour améliorer la santé et la cohésion sociale

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 22 Décembre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    À l'heure actuelle, le climat politique mondial souligne la nécessité de s'intéresser davantage aux composantes non-économiques du bien-être et du progrès social telles que la santé, l'engagement social, l'intérêt pour la politique ou la criminalité.
    L'éducation contribue largement à façonner ces indicateurs de progrès social. Néanmoins, les liens et mécanismes de causalité, l'influence des contextes et l'impact relatif des différentes mesures éducatives sur ces indicateurs sont encore mal compris.
    Le présent rapport a pour objet d'apporter des éléments de réponse aux problèmes rencontrés dans l'évaluation des retombées sociales de l'éducation ; à cet effet, il présente une synthèse des données probantes disponibles, passe en revue un certain nombre d'analyses de données antérieures et examine les débats politiques. La conclusion de ce rapport est que l'éducation peut contribuer à améliorer la santé et l'engagement civique et social. Elle peut réduire les inégalités en développant les compétences cognitives, sociales et émotionnelles, mais aussi en favorisant l'adoption d'un mode de vie sain et de pratiques et de valeurs participatives. Les efforts menés en milieu scolaire sont plus susceptibles de porter leurs fruits s'ils sont complétés par ceux de la famille et de l'environnement social élargi - d'où la nécessité d'améliorer la cohérence entre les différentes politiques sectorielles, mais aussi entre les différents niveaux d'enseignement.

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  • La réussite du processus de développement dépend pour beaucoup de l'efficience, de l'intégrité et de l'efficacité avec lesquelles l'État collecte, gère et dépense les deniers publics. L'amélioration des règles et institutions qui encadrent ces activités devrait donc être une composante essentielle de toute démarche en faveur du développement. La consolidation de la gestion des finances publiques, et de la bonne gouvernance de façon plus générale, étant au coeur des Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement, la Déclaration de Paris (adoptée en 2005) vise à encourager les donneurs et les pays partenaires à déployer des efforts conjoints pour renforcer leurs systèmes de gestion des finances publiques. Ce rapport a pour objet de faire le point sur les progrès accomplis concernant la consolidation de la gestion des finances publiques et de formuler des recommandations sur la voie à suivre pour atteindre les objectifs 2010 fixés dans la Déclaration de Paris.
    Il examine les avantages et le bien-fondé de l'utilisation des systèmes nationaux, evalue les progrès réalisés en direction des objectifs énoncés dans la Déclaration de Paris, passe en en revue toute la palette de réformes intéressant la gestion des finances publiques engagées dans les pays partenaires, étudie les facteurs de réussite des réformes entreprises dans le domaine de la gestion des finances publiques, examine les paramètres qui influent sur les décisions qui sont prises d'utiliser, ou non, les systèmes nationaux de gestion des finances publiques, en mettant l'accent sur les risques perçus et sur la manière dont ils sont évalués et gérés, et reprend les conclusions du Programme d'examen des dépenses publiques et d'évaluation de la responsabilité financière (PEFA) qui contient des informations sur la qualité des systèmes nationaux de gestion des finances publiques.Il ressort de cette étude que désormais, et peut-être plus que jamais auparavant, pays partenaires et donneurs doivent absolument s'employer à bâtir une confiance mutuelle et à oeuvrer ensemble à la construction de véritables partenariats au service de résultats.

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  • Anglais Innovative workplaces - making better use of skills within organisations

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 4 Novembre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    As human capital is the source of innovation, one of the policy principles of the OECD Innovation Strategy is to "foster innovative workplaces". Education and training systems must rise to the challenge of providing people with the means to learn and re-train throughout their life. Companies and organisations need to maximise the human resources they have at their disposal.
    Do employers make the best use of people's skills for innovation? Are some work organisations more associated with innovation than others? If so, are these organisations more widespread in some countries than in others? Are they associated with particular labour market policies, managerial practices, learning cultures or certain levels of education? What are the challenges for innovation within organisations?
    This volume shows that interaction within organisations - as well as individual and organisational learning and training - are important for innovation. The analytical tools and empirical results this study provides show how some work organisations may foster innovation through the use of employee autonomy and discretion, supported by learning and training opportunities.
    Innovative Workplaces will be of interest to policy makers in the fields of education, employment and innovation as well as business leaders, academics and all readers interested in social issues.

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  • Anglais Atlas of gender and development ; how social norms affect gender equality in non-OECD countries

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 22 Février 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Table des matières
    Abbreviations
    Introduction
    Why Do we Need a SIGI Index ?
    World overview
    East Asia and Pacific
    Europe and Central Asia
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Middle East and North Africa
    South Asia
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Sources
    Glossary

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  • Anglais Higher education in Egypt 2010

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 8 Avril 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    In recent years, the Government of Egypt has driven major reforms for modernising the country. However, Egypt's higher education system has remained largely unchanged and without fundamental reform of the sector the country will face difficulties in improving its competitiveness.
    This independent review of Egypt's higher education system focuses on areas in need of attention by policy makers and stakeholders, including system steering and institutional governance; student access to higher education; educational quality and effectiveness; research, development and innovation; and finance. It contains an analysis of the system and valuable recommendations which, taken together, represent a major programme of structural and cultural reform of Egyptian higher education over the decade to 2020.

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  • Les Principes directeurs de l'OCDE à l'intention des entreprises multinationales contiennent des recommandations édictées à l'intention des entreprises internationales dans un certain nombre de domaines, par exemple le travail, l'environnement, la protection des consommateurs ou encore la lutte contre la corruption. Ces recommandations sont formulées par les gouvernements des pays adhérents et bien qu'elles aient un caractère non contraignant, les autorités concernées s'engagent à en promouvoir le respect. La première partie de ce rapport annuel dresse un état des mesures prises au cours de l'année écoulée par les 41 gouvernements adhérents pour renforcer la contribution des Principes directeurs à un meilleur fonctionnement de l'économie mondiale. La deuxième partie de ce rapport annuel résume les débats de la Conférence OCDE-OIT sur le comportement responsable dans le domaine de l'emploi et des relations professionnelles.

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  • Anglais Creating effective teaching and learning environments

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 21 Juillet 2009 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    This publication is the first report from the International Teaching and Learning Survey (TALIS). It provides quantitative, policy-relevant information on the teaching and learning environment in schools in 23 countries and has a focus on lower secondary education.
    School effectiveness research consistently shows that the quality of the learning environment is the most important policy-malleable factor for positive student learning and student outcomes. In recognition of this, TALIS explores key policies and practices that shape the learning environment.
    The important role that school leadership can play in creating effective schools is well documented. TALIS illustrates the roles and functions that school leaders adopt within schools - often facing quite different circumstances - and examines how these roles support teachers in their work. Retaining and developing effective teachers is a priority in all school systems and TALIS examines how teachers" work is recognised, appraised and rewarded and how well the professional development needs of teachers are being addressed.
    Perhaps the most innovative aspect of TALIS is the insights it provides on the teaching beliefs that teachers bring to the classroom and the pedagogical practices that they adopt. TALIS cannot measure which practices or beliefs are most effective but it does show how these associate with some of the conditions that are pre-requisites for effective schooling.

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  • Anglais Spain

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 19 Juin 2009 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    The radical transformation that Spanish rural areas have experienced in the past few decades suggest, as it has occurred in many OECD countries, a new approach to rural policy. Spain has recently undertaken a major reform of its rural policies, including the merger of the Ministry of Agriculture with the Ministry of the Environment and the recently approved Law on Sustainable Development of Rural Areas. This new framework creates a multi-sectoral and place-based "rural policy of state", making Spain better equipped to address the challenges and opportunities of rural areas.

    This report - undertaken at the same time as the reforms were being implemented - will interest both policy makers engaged in similar reform processes and others working on issues such the "political economy" of reforms, rural tourism, renewable energies, rural clusters, development of peri-urban areas and public service delivery in remote rural areas.

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  • Evolution des transports ; 1970 - 2010

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 30 Août 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    Quelle a été l'évolution du secteur des transports de voyageurs et de marchandises au cours des années les plus récentes ? Qu'en a-t-il été de la sécurité routière ? Cette publication retrace à partir de statistiques couvrant la période 1970-2008 l'activité du secteur des transports au sein des pays du Forum International des Transports, et met en évidence, à l'aide de graphiques, les tendances majeures sur cette même période.
    Cette brochure offre au lecteur la primeur des tendances d'évolution des transports. Elle fournit, de plus, des informations statistiques sont données sur les modes de transports aérien et maritime ainsi que sur les dépenses d'investissement et de maintenance réalisées au sein du secteur des transports.

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  • Anglais Cities and climate change

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    Parution : 29 Novembre 2010 - Entrée pnb : 9 Décembre 2015

    As the hubs of economic activity, cities drive the vast majority of the world's energy use and are major contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions. Because they are home to major infrastructure and highly concentrated populations, cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, warmer temperatures and fiercer storms. At the same time, better urban planning and policies can reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and improve the resilience of urban infrastructure to climate change, thus shaping future trends.
    This book shows how city and metropolitan regional governments working in tandem with national governments can change the way we think about responding to climate change. The chapters analyse: trends in urbanisation, economic growth, energy use and climate change; the economic benefits of climate action; the role of urban policies in reducing energy demand, improving resilience to climate change and complementing global climate policies; frameworks for multilevel governance of climate change including engagement with relevant stakeholders; and the contribution of cities to "green growth", including the "greening" of fiscal policies, innovation and jobs. The book also explores policy tools and best practices from both OECD and some non-member countries.
    Cities and Climate Change reveals the importance of addressing climate change across all levels of government. Local involvement through "climate-conscious" urban planning and management can help achieve national climate goals and minimise tradeoffs between environmental and economic priorities at local levels. The book will be relevant to policy makers, researchers, and others with an interest in learning more about urbanisation and climate change policy.

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